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Stormwater Runoff Pollutants

From Urban Runoff Handbook (EPA, 1993)

Pollutants

Sources

Effects

Sediments – TSS, turbidity, dissolved solids

Construction sites, urban/agricultural runoff, landfills, septic fields

Habitat changes, stream turbidity, recreation and aesthetic loss, contaminant transport, bank erosion

Nutrients – Nitrate, Nitrite, Ammonia, Organic Nitrogen, Phosphate, Total Phosphorus

Urban/agricultural runoff, Landfills, septic fields, atmospheric deposition, erosion

Algal blooms, ammonia toxicity, nitrate toxicity

Pathogens – Total and fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, viruses, E.Coli, Enterococcus

Urban/agricultural runoff, septic systems, illicit sanitary connections, boat discharges, domestic/wild animals

Ear/intestinal infections, shellfish bed closure, recreation and aesthetic loss

Organic Enrichment* – BOD, COD, TOC, DO

Urban/agricultural runoff, landfills, septic fields

Dissolved oxygen depletion, Odors, Fish Kills

Toxic Pollutants – metals, organics

Urban/agricultural runoff, pesticides/herbicides, underground storage tanks, hazardous waste sites, landfills, illegal oil disposal, industrial discharges

Bioaccumulation in food chain, Toxicity to humans and other organisms

Salts – sodium chloride

Urban Runoff, snowmelt

Vehicular corrosion, contamination to drinking water, harmful to salt-intolerant plants

*Note: BOD = Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD = Chemical Oxygen Demand,
TOC = Total Organic Carbon, DO = Dissolved Oxygen