Mothers and Babies (Reproductive Health) Data and Information
Understanding of negative reproductive health outcomes such as low birth weight, prematurity, and fetal and
infant deaths has increased over the past decades, but there is still much to learn. Not all reproductive health
issues can be prevented, but reproductive aged women can take some steps to increase their chances of having a
healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby. So, whether you are planning to get pregnant or are pregnant, you will
want to give your baby the best chance you can for a healthy start.
Use this interactive tool to choose Mothers and Babies indicators and measures to generate maps, bar charts and
Birth weight: The first weight of the newborn obtained after birth.
Infant death: Death of a live born infant under one year of age
Live birth: The complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a
product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, which, after such
expulsion or extraction, breathes, or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of the
heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or
not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached. Heartbeats are to be
distinguished from transient cardiac contractions; respirations are to be distinguished from
fleeting respiratory efforts or gasps. All states require the reporting of live births
regardless of length of gestation or birth weight.
Low birth weight: Low birth weight is a weight at birth, which is less
than 2,500 grams or 5 pounds 8 ounces.
Neonatal death: Death of a live born infant under 28 days of age.
Perinatal death: Death of a live born infant less than 7 days of age
or a fetus past the 28th week of gestation.
Postneonatal death: Death of a live born infant 28-364 days of age.
Preterm birth: A live birth occurring before 37 completed weeks of
Sex ratio: Calculated as the number of term male singleton births per
the number of term female singleton births in a given year.
Singleton birth: A singleton birth results from a pregnancy with only
one baby, not a twin or other multiple birth.
Term birth: A live birth at or above 37 completed weeks of gestation.
Total fertility rate (TFR): Calculated as the sum of all age-specific
fertility rates multiplied by five. The TFR estimates the number of births that a hypothetical
group of 1,000 women would have over their lifetimes, based on the age-specific birth rates in a
given year. It can be interpreted as a replacement rate. Replacement is the rate at which a
given generation can exactly replace itself, generally considered to be 2,100 births per 1,000
Very low birth weight: Very low birth weight is a weight at birth,
which is less than 1,500 grams or 3 pounds 4 ounces.
Very preterm birth: A live birth occurring before 32 completed weeks
Increase your chance of having a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby: